what is velvet fabric?
velvet, in fabrics, the fabric having a short, thick pile, used in apparel and upholstery. The term derives from the Middle French velu, “ shaggy. ” Velvet is made in the pile weave, of silk, cotton, or synthetic filaments, and is characterized by a soft, velvet-like face formed by cropped yarns. The wrong side of the fabric is smooth and shows the weave employed.
- Velvets can be made water-repellent and crush-resistant. They're also sometimes patterned or embossed.
velveteen, in fabrics, fabric with a short, thick pile face and a smooth reverse, generally made of cotton and suggesting velvet. It's made by the stuffing-pile system, in which the plain or twill weave is used as a base, and redundant puddings are floated over four or five foundations. After weaving, the docks are cut, and their ends are brushed up to form a smooth pile about one-eighth inch long.
The fabric back is smooth and shows the introductory weave. Velveteen has a further body and is less fluently draped than velvet. It imparts warmth and is used for women’s and children’s garments and also for curtains and spreads.
fabric product weaving, a product of fabric by interlacing two sets of yarns so that they cross each other, typically at right angles, generally fulfilled with a hand- or power-operated impend.
A brief treatment of weaving follows. For further discussion, see cloth Product of fabric.
S- and Z- twist yarns
Cloth Woven fabrics
Weaving is the process of combining underpinning and weft factors to make a woven structure. The factors need neither be resemblant to each.
In weaving, lengthwise yarns are called underpinning; cornerwise yarns are called weft, or filling. Utmost woven fabrics are made with their external edges finished in a manner that avoids raveling; these are called selvages. They run lengthwise, resemblant to the underpinning yarns. The three drive weaves are straight, twill, and satin. Fancy weaves — similar to the pile, Jacquard, dobby, and leno — bear more complicated looms or special impend attachments for their construction.
Three types of weaves are straight, twill, and satin.
How the yarns are amalgamated determines the type of weave.
The yarn count and several foundations and filling yarns to the square inch determine the closeness or tautness of a weave. Woven fabrics may also be varied by the proportion of underpinning yarns to filling yarns. Some goods are achieved by the selection of yarns or combinations of yarns.
In the plain weave, each filling yarn passes over and under the underpinning yarns, with the order reversed in interspersing rows. Fabrics made in the plain weave include percale, muslin, and taffeta. Roasted goods in similar fabrics as faille and bengaline are produced by employing heavier yarns for either the underpinning or the stuffing. In the basket-weave, one or further stuffing yarns are passed alternatively over and under two or further underpinning yarns, as seen in monk’s cloth.
Twill weaves are made by interlacing the yarns in a manner producing slant caricatures, crests, or wales across the fabric. Wales may run from the upper right to the lower leftism of the fabric or the reverse. Twill fabrics include denim, gabardine, and blarney.
Satin weaves have a luster produced by exposing further foundations than paddings on the right side of the fabric. The exposed foundations are called docks. In the sateen weave, the process is reversed, and the exposed paddings form the docks. The quantum of twist in the yarns and the length of the docks produce variations. Fabrics made in these weaves include slipper satin, satin waffle, and colorful sateen types.
Pile weaves produce fabrics with raised, thick shells. They can be made by weaving redundant underpinning yarns over cables, producing circles that are cut as the cables are withdrawn; by conforming impend pressure to produce circles that are constantly left uncut; by using redundant stuffing yarns to produce docks that are cut after weaving; or by weaving two cloths face to face, binding them together with a redundant set of foundations that form the pile when the fabrics are cut piecemeal. Exemplifications of woven pile fabrics include velvet, plush, terry cloth, and numerous synthetic furs.
Jacquard weaves, produced on a special impend, are characterized by complex woven-in designs, frequently with large design reprises or shade goods. Fabrics made by this system include brocade, damask, and brocatelle. Dobby weaves, taking a special impend attachment, have small, geometric, textured, constantly repeated woven-in designs, as seen in raspberry’s- eye. Leno weaves, also made with a special attachment, are generally featherlight and open, giving a lace-like appearance, and are made by twisting conterminous underpinning yarns around each other, also passing the filling yarn through the crooked foundations. Marquisette, casement cloth, and mosquito network are produced by this system.